At the beginning
In any amplifier, it is a speaker that actually makes a sound, which is the exit of the sound closest to our ears. It may be too much to say that "Marshall's sounds and fender sounds cannot be done without speakers," but there is no doubt that speakers will definitely play an important role in the guitar sound. So, this time, I would like to focus on speakers in the guitar amplifier.
Compared to electric guitars, the history of speakers is quite old, and it is said that the world's first Loud speaker was publicly used in 1919 from the speech of President Wilson in San Diego. Later, with the explosive hits of the voice movie "Talky", various folk voice speakers were developed mainly in movie theaters. Eventually, the electric guitar appeared in the 1950s, and when the movement of rock music in the 1960s occurred, musical instrument speakers appeared one after another.
Is the speaker part of the instrument?
I think that you often see it often in the catalog of a guitar amplifier, but it is a catchphrase such as "Selation speaker". Fender is good for Gensen, Marshall is limited to selations, and there are various voices, and there are many myths and gossip, so many people are particular about the guitar amplifier speakers. increase.
For example, do people who sing while playing the guitar care about the PA speaker unit? Is there a vocalist saying, "I only sing in JBL!" However, when it comes to guitar amplifiers, it is strange that they suddenly come out, such as "it must be a green back" and "Jensen". This is because the speakers used in the guitar amplifier have the same factor as the amplifier itself, not just a place to make a sound, but a part of the instrument that creates sound. The only place where speakers are so important in the deep audio world and guitar amplifiers may be the only place where speakers are so important.
I think that many people have connected effectors such as distortion to the guitar and connected to the stereo of the house. I guess the result was a jarjari, and it sounded like a very guitar sound. The same is true for connecting heads from heads such as Marshall to mixer. In the past, there were many products such as speaker simulators, so it was necessary to process sounds in order to obtain sound similar to speakers even at the line, and even in recent digital modeling, sound including sound from speakers. Sound is made by sampling. It is no exaggeration to say that the speaker is creating a sound with a thick and three -dimensional feeling unique to the guitar amplifier.
Currently, a manufacturer that manufactures guitar amplifiers, few manufacturers manufacturing speakers in -house, and many manufacturers use speakers from famous speaker manufacturers. For this reason, the compatibility between the amplifier and the speaker or the taste of matching has increased the uniqueness of the sound. Then, while actually looking at the specific examples such as "Fender, Gensen, Marshall and Celation", I went on a journey to search for speakers. Let's play a little in history.
Everything started with JENSEN! ?
American sound father "Peter JENSEN"
In particular, JENSEN speakers are familiar with fender amplifiers during the tweed period. This is not only the American sound, but also the beginning of the world speaker.
Peter Jensen, the founder of JENSEN, is surprisingly from Denmark. Born in 1886, he worked as a telephone or radio engineer since he was young. Eventually, at the age of 23, he met the United States, and met an engineer named Edward Pridham, and was attracted to each other's talent, established a small workshop in California and began developing radio transmitter. In 1915, JENSEN and PRIDHAM invented a loud speaker using voice coil for the first time in the world. This was a big incident that could be said to be the beginning of all acoustic facilities. The invented speaker is named "Magnavox", along with the two Magnavox in San Francisco. Magnavox speakers have been widely known all over the United States for private or military use. In 1925, JENSEN, who left Magnavox, moved to Chicago and established JENSEN in 1927 the following year. This was the moment of the birth of the legendary Jensen speaker.
Magnavox vacuum tube package.
It is written for radio/television, so you can remember the world at that time.
JENSEN, who moved to Chicago, embarks on the development of loud speakers. In this way, we will spread its name in the United States as a loud speaker pioneer. It may have been natural that Leo Fender, who had embarked on the development of guitar amplifiers in the 1940s, met JENSEN speakers. Thus, JENSEN's speakers were indispensable for the 1950s fender tweed sound.
Fender amplifier in the early 50's when JENSEN speakers were used
And when rock music begins to spread in the 1960s, the supply of guitar amplifiers increases, and manufacturers such as Ampeg and Gibson also embark on the production of guitar amplifiers. Of course, JENSEN's speaker was used.
You can also see the JENSEN logo from the back of the 60's Ampeg's Blue Diamond.
The end of JENSEN
JENSEN's speaker who built a period in this way. As the scene expanded, as a matter of course, many manufacturers entered the loud speaker market, and many models were created based on the sound of JENSEN. Many manufacturers, such as OXFORD, UTAH, and CTS (Chicago Telephone Supply), joined by Bob Gault, a formerly Magnavox engineer, have manufactured speakers as a model for JENSEN.
And from the early 60's, fender amplifiers began to adopt OXFORD speakers. There are several theories in this, and there are rumors that Leo Fender has requested JENSEN somehow, but JENSEN did not respond. It is a mystery now that the request was sound -like or cost -based, but considering that the Fender's amplifier has been installed in the Fender amplifier in 1963, it is the development. Was there an element of matching? As a result, OXFORD will be responsible for the core of the 60's Black Face Riverbar.
Fender Princeton Reverb made in 1964 equipped with OXFORD speaker
It is said that Peter JENSEN died in 1961. It was a life dedicated to the sound. JENSEN, who lost Peter JENSEN, gradually lost his centripetal force, gradually pulled out of the speaker market, and stopped manufacturing speakers in the late 1960s. Thus, the JENSEN speaker became an eternal legend.
(However, since then, it has been encouraged by the noisy voice in search of JENSEN's sound, and now Italian Sica Altoparlanti has acquired a license, and a model created with the same manufacturing method as at that time has been manufactured under the name of Jensen. .)
JENSEN made in 1966 with the Fender logo. Until the late 1960s, this design is seen.
The reprint type JENSEN since the 90's is displayed as "Made in Italy".
American Standard Eminence after JENSEN
It was Eminence that appeared before and after JENSEN disappearing from the market. As mentioned earlier, BOB GAULT, who was once established by Peter Jensen, and was involved in speaker design in CTS, established EMINENENCE in 1966 and started manufacturing speakers. At the beginning of the establishment, he received the request of Ampeg and produced about three speakers a day, but in support of the spirit and rich technical capabilities that inherit the pedigree from JENSEN, many American brands, including Peavey. He is asked for a solid tone, and today he is the huge most speaker maker in the United States, which manufactures 10,000 speakers a day.
Fender amplifiers are also used in most models in the 70's, with the low quality OXFORD, and nowadays. Most manufacturers can see the old -fashioned Ampeg, Peabyy, newly brands such as Soldano, VHT, Rocktron, Egnator, and base amplifiers such as Hartke and GallieN KRUEGER.
Another hero's tragedy life "JBL"
I saw the genealogy of the American speaker from JENSEN. In this way, the brand is different, but it seems that the history of American speakers has been pursuing the legendary sound of Peter L.jensen.
However, there is another genius that must not be forgotten in the history of American speakers. The life dedicated to the sound. It is James B. Lansing, a tragedy genius who pursued the sound until it was ruined.
James B. Lansing, the founder of JBL, was born in 1902. He is 16 years younger than Peter Jensen. As usual, James B. Lansing has also been interested in electrical machinery since childhood, and was a boy who was enthusiastic about disassembling and making. It seems that he was so enthusiastic that he was a genius boy in the neighborhood.
Eventually, he chose the path of an engineer on the radio station. However, at that time, there was no speaker that could play music satisfactorily, and he was raising the heat to produce speakers. In 1927, he established Lansing Manufacturing Co. in California and began manufacturing speakers. Strangely, it was the same year that Peter Jensen released Magnavox and founded JENSEN. The era is a big boom of a tokie movie. Lansing speakers have been very well received, including won the Academy Awards Technology Division due to their good sound, and are required by many movie theaters. However, the pursuit of the unsatisfied sound was a disaster, and it gradually fell into trouble.
At that time, Western Electric, a major American sound manufacturer, established All Technical Services, mainly as maintenance work for acoustic facilities such as movie theaters. All Technical Services, which focused on the high -level technical skills of Lansing, acquired Lansing Manufacturing Co. in 1941 and established a company called Altec Lansing. James B. Lansing has decided to develop a speaker as the vice president. This is the birth of an ALTEC speaker, which is also famous. James B. Lansing's talent was unfortunately demonstrated in Altec Lansing, and many inscription speakers were produced at this time. It is said that Lansing's technology at this time is the nucleus behind Altec later called a legendary speaker manufacturer.
In 1946, James B. Lansing leaves ALTEC to create a speaker that plays the sound he wants, and establishes James B. Lansing (JBL). This is also a strange year when the fender amplifier appeared around the world. The following year, in 1947, he produced the D130, which is said to be an eternal name. Later, the D130F is a masterpiece that boasts a huge reputation in the fender amplifier. Unfortunately, this was the last work of James B. Lansing.
Although he established JBL independently from ALTEC in search of his own sound, it was still difficult in terms of management. Did heaven don't give two things, or was it abandoned by a lot? Or you may have been jealous of other gods because you love the sound too much. James B. Lansing, who gradually had a lot of debt and was stuck, chose to kill himself in 1949. 47 years old.
But JBL did not die. James B. Lansing, who continued to pursue the sound, is passed down to many engineers who yearn for him, and the company rides again the name of JBL. While many acoustic speakers that have colored the times are created, the D130F, an instrument version of the famous D130, was used as a fender amplifier option in the 1960s, attracting many players with its beautiful overtones and rich sounds. did. It is also familiar that JBL was used even in one legendary case that Mesa/Boogie founder Landor Smith said to Santana and said "Really Boogie !!" And today, as a sound speaker, the first -class brand that the name of JBL appears first is (probably as James B. Lansing itself, probably never expected).
Ensemble D-130 for musical instruments D-110F D-110F
As for the sounds of JBL speakers, all kinds of compliments have already been raised from all over the world, so there is a feeling of what I say now, but in a nutshell, "it's just right to listen to music." Is that impression? I feel like I'm listening to "good music", not "good speaker sound". When you notice, is it drunk by the sounding music, is it the charm of JBL (especially the old model)?
The K -Series that inherited the traces of the D series was also used with Arnico Magnet.
The photo is a 12 -inch K120.
The e -series whose magnet has changed from Arnico to ferrite.
This is the 15 -inch base E140.
Altec Lansing, on the other hand, continued to run as a top brand of acoustic speakers, and in the 1970s developed 417-8 HII, a speaker for instruments. In addition to MESA/BOOGIE MK-I and MK-II, it is also known as a speaker that Randy Rose liked. Since then, Altec has been running smoothly from the top runner in the acoustic speaker world. In the late 90's, he became a member of Electro Voice and still keeps the position of the audio world.
MESA/BOOGIE MK-I in the 1970s equipped with ALTEC Epoch Making 417-8H II
Electro Voice, which ruled Altec under the wings, is also strangely unusual as JENSEN and Lansing Manufacturing Co., a manufacturer that originated in the production of microphones, and sold speech since 1949, when James B. Lansing left the world. doing. The guitar amplifier is familiar with MESA/BOOGIE MK-III, and it is extremely popular as a base speaker. It is a brand that often treats as a good rival of JBL today as a sound facility for various venues.
The 70's MK-I hardwood enclosure indicating that Electro Voice is used
Resonating -History of American speakers
I've been looking at the history of the American speaker brand, but if you look at it this way, you can't help but feel the fateful thing so that the expression "strange" comes out many times. Many brands that have disappeared in history. And the brand that has inherited it and has been making it at this time. I had the impression that their thoughts on the sound were making this history in resonance.
"CELESTION" in the sky that British proud
On the other hand, a great legend is also born in the UK over the sea. Yes, it is a familiar CELESTION speaker. Celestion was established in 1924. Three years earlier than JENSEN, Lansing Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and Electro Voice, it is the oldest speaker manufacturer in the world. Celestion begins with the founder, Cyril French, has created a small speaker factory in Hampton Witch, Kingston, Sally, a suburb of London and the movie Harry Potter. And he started creating new speakers with the help of an engineer called Eric Mackintosh, who had already high technology in making speakers at the time. Eventually, three brothers of Cyril French will join the factory. It is reported that Celestion's name was "Celestial" (heavenly, sacred, sacred), as the sound is "high". It was named by Ralph, the brother of Cyril French.
At that time, Celestion also manufactured phonographs in addition to speakers, but in 1922, the broadcast of British state -run (BBC) started in 1922 and boosted by such a radio boom and Celestion's speaker sound quality. Ride the radio waves and spread throughout the UK.
In the late 1920s, Rola, a speaker maker in Ohio, USA, has created a British factory in the Thomas Ditton, about a few kilometers southwest of Celestion, and has begun to produce speakers. In 1942, when World War II increased the needs of munitions, ROLA relocated all speakers manufacturing departments to this British factory, and factories in the mainland of the United States will focus on munitions, such as aircraft lighting. 。 The Rola British factory (British Rola), which has gained power through the gathering of the speaker division, will absorb Celestion in 1947 after the war. The following year, Celestion moved to British Rola Thomas Ditton and started a new start as Rola Celestion. In 1949, Rola Celestion acquired TRUVOX, which produced audio equipment and speakers in Wembley. Among the engineers who joined the friends due to this merger, there was a Les Ward. He then develops a legendary G12 speaker and makes the name of Celestion worldwide. The encounter between Les Ward and Celestion, which will later move history. Just behind the sea was the year when the American genius, James B. Lansing, ended himself in his life.
In the late 1950s, a major turning point for Rola Celestion. Les Ward, which has already been the center of Rola Celestion, will be ordered from a large guitar amplifier speaker from Dick Denny of Jenning Musical Industries, who was the old friend. LES Ward added an arrangement based on their request to G12, which had been developed for a long time, and in 1957, the guitar amplifier equipped with this speaker appeared worldwide as Vox15. And in the 1960s, the Beatles rushed around the world and burned the names of VOX and Celestion all over the world.
VOX and Celestion
With the success of this VOX amplifier, Rola Clestion's speakers will attract great attention from guitar amplifiers. The first one who approached was Jim Marshall. Five years after the appearance of VOX15, in 1962, the first marshal amplifier equipped with a Celestion speaker will flap over the world.
ROLA G12 with notation of Thames Ditton Surrey English
The Celestion speaker, which has been a great success in VOX and Marshall, has been used by manufacturers around the world to this as a symbol of British sound, and is loved by players around the world. In the United States, many top brands, including MESA/BOOGIE, Matchlass, and Bogner in recent years, are often used in Japanese models.
With the global hit of the G12, Rola Celestion, which has expanded its factory size, established a huge G12 -only factory in Ips Witch, Tohoku Suffolk, London in 1970. In 1975, everything, including the headquarters, was gathered there, and the Ips Witch Plant still produces Celestion speakers.
G12 green back before the relocation in 1970, commonly known as "prirora".
There is a notation of THAMES DITTON SURREY.
This is a recent green back. It is displayed as iPSWICH and ENGLAND.
Speaker identification method
Most speakers have a label on the back of the manufacturer on the back. However, the fender amplifier and the like have a label with the words "Fender", and no manufacturer is not written. If you are old and the label is hard to read, check the "factory code", you can know when and where it was made if it was an American speaker.
The Fender logo stands out, but the Fender itself does not make a speaker.
The factory code is printed on the edge of this speaker
Factory code is usually written in a number of 6 digits.
The number indicating the manufacturer with the first three digits from the left (220 is JENSEN), the first place in the next year (7 in 1957), the last two are the weeks of the year. (49, the 49th week → from around December 2 to 9). The fourth number in the year of manufacture indicates only the first place of the year, so it is not possible to determine whether it is 57 or 1967 or 1977 if it is 7. For this reason, it is comprehensively judged from the specifications of the speaker and the period in which it was manufactured.
Here is the factory code of this speaker.
In recent years, eminence is written in 67- (8-digit numbers), and the first two digits after 67- indicate the year.
This is 99 years.
What is this speaker mounted on a tweed amplifier?
Here is the factory code. 1960 OXFORD
Estimation of selation speakers
In the case of a selation, it is a British speaker, so the notation is displayed in a different two -digit number and a two -digit alphabet. The two -digit number indicates the date, the first -digit alphabet represents the month of manufacture, and the second -digit alphabet represents the year of production.
Example: In this case, it indicates that B = February, L = 1978, 9 = date, and found that it was manufactured on February 9, 1978.
The T1871 displayed below is a version of the model called T -number, and the specifications such as voice coils and corn paper are managed. It is said that "T" on the head was attached by the designer Les Ward after Truvox acquired by Celestion.
Challenge / tolerance input and impedance for speaker replacement
No special technologies or tools are needed to replace the speakers. Depending on the shape of the wiring, there are many things that can be replaced without soldering, and basically it is okay if you have a driver and a wrench (pliers).
(Depending on the model, some models cannot be removed unless the amplifier is disassembled to the amplifier part. For such a model, we recommend that you ask a specialty store.)
If you remove this nut, you can remove the speaker.
In the case of this type of connector, it can be easily attached and detached without soldering.
Be careful not to make a mistake in plus or minus!
Tolerance input and impedance
When replacing the speakers, first of all, it is decided to decide what to change to. You can understand the historical trend of each brand here. In addition, we will introduce the sound image of individual models on our website product page, so we would appreciate it if you could refer to it.
Also, when deciding a replacement speaker, the tolerance input and impedance are required. Tolerance input is the maximum output (W) accepted by the speaker, and using it beyond that can damage the speaker, which can damage the amplifier itself. Basically, selecting a tolerance input of the amplifier output watts or more. If you use multiple speakers, the total allowance of each speaker is the overall tolerance input.
Example: One of the tolerance input 30W speakers cannot be used for 50W amplifiers, but if two are a total of 60W, it can be used with a 50W amplifier.
Next is the impedance. The speaker is operated by the current flowing from the output transformer of the amplifier, but the resistance value for efficiently operating the amount received is impeded. This is also not available in a smaller impedance than the amplifier output impedance (current amount). This also causes damage such as damage. Especially in the case of a tube amplifier, it is not possible to sound efficiently even if it is larger than the output impedance of the amplifier, so the response may decrease or the sound may be heard far away. It is a good idea to choose an impedance suitable for the output impedance of the amplifier. For example, if the output impedance of the amplifier is 8Ω, use an 8Ω one. If the output impedance on the amplifier side can be switched, such as 8Ω/16Ω, the output of the output will be larger and the power of the amplifier is the most efficient form. can. (If you can't make a loud noise at a small venue due to marshall, you can use it in 4Ω/4Ω and use it as an Attaneter.) In the case of transistor amplifier, the notation is a minimum Ω. Since it is often done, it can be used if it is more impedance.
If you use multiple speakers, if the total value of each impedance is connected to the series, and if each impedance is connected in parallel, the comprehensive impedance is divided by the number of speakers.
* Use a different impedance speaker at the same time can cause trouble and the sound balance will be poor.
On the figure (series): 8Ω+8Ω = 16Ω
Figure (parallel): 8Ω ÷ 2 (number of speakers) = 4Ω
(The impedance in parallel can be calculated by Ohm's law: 1/a+1/b = 1/n)
About repair of speakers
There are few parts that can be repaired without special technology, and if you skip or break the corn paper, you will basically replace the entire speaker. Apart from those who have special technology, if you ask a specialist technician to repair a speaker, such as replacing corn paper, the cost is usually more expensive than purchasing a new speaker. It is easier to replace than fix it, and it can be done at a low cost. However, if there is no equivalent that can be replaced, such as vintage, and if it is not the sound of the speaker, it is possible to repair the cone paper and repair the voice coil.
Maintenance that anyone can do
In this way, there are few parts that can be maintained in speakers, but let me tell you some easy -to -check points, although not maintenance. If it is 12 inches of guitar amplifier, it usually has a weight of 3 kg or more, and some are nearly 10 kilometers. Since this vibrates violently at a loud volume, the screws that fix the speakers are loosened by the vibration. Then, the vibration of the speaker will not be directly reflected in the cabinet, and the sound will be loose depending on the loose and adjustment. For example, when you open a marsical cabinet that has been used for 5-6 years, the speakers inside are almost loose. Just retightening this will make the sound tight suddenly, so if you feel that the sound has disappeared recently, you may want to check it out. Depending on the situation, it may change surprisingly, so if you are using it frequently at high volume, it is a good idea to check it regularly for looseness.
(Occasionally, I sometimes encounter an impulse sound with an old amplifier such as a practice studio (laughs). I will be patient because I will not go ...)
Just tighten this screw and the sound is tight.
What is a speaker?
A device that vibrates the diaphragm by giving a current to the coil and transmits audio by air vibration. This is the definition of the speaker. In other words, we are listening to the vibration of the air sent by the speakers. The sound is air. I don't usually think that, but there was an episode that made me feel that kind of thing, so I would like to introduce it at the end.
A few years ago, when I went to the United States, I was terrified by the music heard from the ceiling in the bus. It's a famous song by Eric Clapton, but I'm not an enthusiastic fan, but still listening to CDs at home, radio, and BGMs at the store where I dropped in, etc. That was. Why is it so beautiful guitar sound? If you look at it, it is embedded in the ceiling of a cheap bus, and it sounds monaural. It shouldn't be a blessed environment in sound, but if you could hear a frequency you've never heard before and have a color in the sound, it looked vividly different. For the first time, I realized that it was different from listening in Japanese air.
Since then, I've been able to notice that there is a rainy sound on the weather on the weather and on rainy days. If you listen to such a feeling, the record of the 60's contains the sound of the air of the 60's, and the record in the 70's also contains the sound of the air at the time. (What is the recent line recording?) After talking about the speakers, there is no child or child at the end (what was it until now ...). We can think again that we are listening to the sound of air through various speakers, and I would like to conclude this episode this time.
I want to cherish the air.